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Term Definition
E. coli (1) Living as harmless bacteria found in the gut, E. coli has been the model bacterium of choice for over thirty years. Recombinant proteins were originally produced in E. coli, and many are still produced that way today. (2) When populating body systems other than the gut or when its genetic makeup is altered (naturally or by engineering) in specific ways, E. coli can cause numerous infectious diseases, most notably urinary tract infections, sepsis, and food poisoning .
E1A gene A multifunctional gene first isolated from adenovirus. Viruses use E1A to regulate the expression of several viral and host genes in infected cells. Expression of E1A limits the growth of tumor cells.
E2F A well-studied transcription factor that regulates many cellular processes.
EBITDA Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization. EBITDA is used as a surrogate measure of a company's cash flow from operations.
Edema Tissue swelling resulting from excess water accumulation.
Efficacy Measures the power to produce, in a controlled setting such as a clinical trial, a stated effect typically attributable to a known physiologic phenomenon. It is important to derive measures of efficacy because, with appropriate statistical achievements, these data can approximate real-world effectiveness.
EFVDAS (Élan) An acronym for Effervescent Drug Absorption System, it is Élan’s proprietary effervescent drug delivery technology similar to the technology used in Alka-Seltzer.
Eldepryl Somerset’s Selegiline formulation, it is a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor which prevents the breakdown of dopamine in the brain, and is indicated, in combination with l-dopa/carbidopa, in the management of signs and symptoms of Parkinson disease.
Electroencephalogram A study the brain’s electrical activity in which scalp electrodes, attached to a machine, records the electrical impulses. Typically, the investigator is trying to determine if the brain waves represent normal activity or activity suggesting epilepsy or other disturbances of brain wave patterns. "
Electrophoresis The migration of particles in an electric field toward either of two electric poles (negative/anode or positive/cathode).
Eletriptan A later-generation triptan developed by Pfizer that has an improved treatment profile over sumitriptan, the prototypic 5-HT 1B/1D agonist, in the treatment of acute migraine.
Embolism Obstruction of a blood vessel by a, typically once mobile, blood clot or other substance. A blood clot or other substance travels through the bloodstream, lodges in a blood vessel and plugs it. Classical non blood clot substances include an air bubble, amniotic fluid, a fat globule, cholesterol crystals, a cluster of bacteria, chemicals (i.e. talc), and drugs (predominately illicit drugs). ""Embolus"" refers to the plug itself whereas ""embolism"" refers to the process by which this happens.
Embryo The organism from the time of implantation in the uterus to the end of the second month of gestation.
Endocytosis A process by which cells bring materials into themselves. The process involves pinching off a bit of the cell membrane which forms a boundary membrane of engulfed material.
Endometriosis A disorder in which ectopic endometrial tissue is found (cells of the uterine lining deposited outside of the uterus).
Endorphins A group of opioid (morphine-like), pain-suppressing chemicals produced by the body. They are considered analgesics (diminishing the perception of pain) as well as sedatives. They are manufactured in the brain, spinal cord, and many other parts of the body.
Endothelin A peptide secreted by endothelial and other cell types that has potent vasoconstricting effects. Endothelin-1, the most predominant of three known isoforms, is produced in response to shear stress, vasoconstrictors, growth factors, and other stimuli.
Endotoxin A toxin of internal origin, most notably the poisonous substance present in, especially gram negative, bacteria separable from the cell body only on its disintegration. One of the most studied initiating substances of the sepsis spectrum.
Endpoints Clinical trial measurements made in study subjects or biological samples to assess the safety, tolerability, efficacy, effectiveness, or other objectives. Endpoints are ranked in order of importance with primary being the most important and the one(s) for which the study is, especially, designed. Secondary and tertiary outcomes may also be sought.
Enema (1) Injection of material into the intestine by means of the anus. (2) Material for injection in this fashion.
Enkephalins A group of opioid (morphine-like), pain-suppressing chemicals produced by the body containing the 5 amino acid sequence, Tyrosine-Glycine-Glycine-Phenylalanine. They are considered analgesics (diminishing the perception of pain) as well as sedatives. They are manufactured in the brain, spinal cord, and many other parts of the body. "
Enkephalins A group of opioid (morphine-like), pain-suppressing chemicals produced by the body containing the 5 amino acid sequence, Tyrosine-Glycine-Glycine-Phenylalanine. They are considered analgesics (diminishing the perception of pain) as well as sedatives. They are manufactured in the brain, spinal cord, and many other parts of the body. "
Enterprise Value (EV) A measure of the market value of the operations of a company. EV is computed by taking the market value of all the outstanding shares of a company’s stock added to the value of the company’s interest bearing debt less cash and cash equivalents. Since the two external providers of capital for a company are its shareholders and debtholders, the market values of these two classes items provides the total value that the capital markets place on the company. Cash and cash equivalents are then subtracted to obtain a clearer measure of the value the market places on a company’s operations and to smooth out the effect of financing events such as IPO’s and secondary stock offerings.
Enzyme Protein that acts as a chemical catalyst within the body, increasing or decreasing the rate of a particular biochemical reaction. Most metabolic pathways in the body are controlled by a series of enzymes which each control one step in the pathway. "
Eosinophil A type of white blood cell whose tissue and blood levels often rise during an allergic reaction.
Epidemiology (1) The branch of medical science that deals with the population characteristics (e.g. incidence, prevalence), distribution, and control of disease in a population (2) The sum of the factors controlling the presence or absence of a disease, pathogen, or clinical outcome.
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) A skin cell growth factor known to be involved in angiogenesis.
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFRs) Cell surface proteins that bind and are activated by EGF.
Epidural Catheter A very fine plastic tube placed through the skin into the spinal epidural space, and left in place for a defined period of time, typically less than 2 weeks, such that medication can be administered through it. Epidural means situated upon or administered outside of the dura mater, the outermost of the 3 meninges covering the spinal cord and brain. The typical medications administered in such a fashion are local anesthetics and/or narcotics for pain relief or prophylaxis. Form this comes the common colloquialism, ""getting an epidural." Epidural catheters are also used prognostically for trials of spinal medications before placement of permanent implanted ports or programmable pumps.
Epilepsy A seizure disorder characterized by episodic disturbances of brain function.
Erectile Dysfunction The consistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.
Ergotamine An alkaloid derived from ergots. An agent with great smooth muscle stimulation potency, it has significant therapeutic activity against vascular headaches including migraine.
Ergots Any of a series of alkaloids derived from rye seed residua having been transformed from fungal infection of rye grass. Specific isomers can induce uterine contraction, control bleeding, and contract blood vessels. Ergots are potent blood vessel constrictors that have been used against migraine, often in formulation with caffeine, for over a century.
ERK An intracellular signaling kinase that can promote various biological effects, including cell division. ERK proteins are related to MAP kinases.
Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) Tender, inflamed, subcutaneous nodules associated with leprosy, it is often accompanied by fever, swollen lymph nodes, and joint aches.
Erythropoetin (EPO) A hormone produced by the kidney, and to a much lesser extent, the liver, that promotes red blood cell development in the bone marrow.
Ester Any of a class of often fragrant compounds represented by the formula RCOOR´ and typically formed by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol with elimination of water.
Estradiol A hormone which is the phenolic alcohol C18H24O2 primarily secreted by the ovaries. It is the most potent of the naturally occurring estrogens, and can be administered in its natural or semi-synthetic esterified form especially to treat menopausal symptoms "
Estrogen A substance, natural or synthetic, that exerts biological effects characteristic of estradiol, estriol, or its naturally occurring relatives. Thought of as female sex hormones, they are made in the ovary, fetoplacental unit, testes, and the adrenal cortex. They are responsible for the development of the female secondary sex characteristics, and during the menstrual cycle they act on the female genitalia to produce an environment suitable for the fertilization, implantation, and nutrition of the early embryo.
European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) The government agency responsible for approving and regulating medicines for commercial distribution in the European Union. Analogous to the U.S.’s FDA.
Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) As defined by Sackett in 1996, EBM is the “conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.” Evidence based health care occurs when decisions affecting patient care are considered in the context of the appraisal of all valid, relevant information. It has grown to incorporate, as “evidence-based (medical) practice,” the integration of clinical expertise with optimal clinical evidence from systematic research. EBM is currently evolving into an approach to health care practice and delivery in which the clinician (for individual patients) and administrative decision makers (for populations) are acutely aware of not only the research evidence in support of clinical practice, clinical trial, regulatory, epidemiologic, and other medical decisions, but also the strength of that evidence.
Ex Vivo Out of the body. Often refers to manipulations done to a patient’s cells after they’ve been removed. For example giving gene therapy to harvested blood cells before re-injection is ex vivo therapy.
Excretion A pharmacokinetic property of a drug relating to its elimination from the body. Also known as elimination.
Expanded Label Use The use of a drug in a way both approved by the FDA and permitted to be put on its label and advertised as its intended purpose. Indications added to the label identified as expanded label uses imply (1) that they were not on the label prior to (2) acceptance of and approval for a supplemental biologic license application (sBLA).
Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) A short DNA sequence, typically around 200 base pairs in length, derived from mRNA produced by a defined cell. mRNA corresponds to transcribed (expressed) sequences of DNA, so the EST sequence is a fragment of a gene. Efficient methods of generating and sequencing ESTs led to EST databases containing 60,000 or more ESTs in the 1990s, generated by public research efforts, Incyte, and Human Genome Sciences, and others. Besides corresponding to fragments of genes and containing information about the cell of origin, ESTs have no inherent information about the function of the corresponding gene.
Extracellular Matrix The substance(s) between cells of a given tissue or tissues.
Extracellular Protein A protein found outside of cells, either on the cell surface or secreted into the surrounding fluid.
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