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Term Definition
Fabry Disease An X-linked single gene disorder resulting in deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme a-galactosidase A, involved in the biodegradation of lipids, thus causing lysosomal storage defects. "
Factor Xa An enzyme involved thrombin generation, factor Xa is necessary for clot formation from induced by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Activated factor Xa becomes an essential component of the prothrombinase complex (along with factor Va, prothrombin, phospholipid, and calcium). Since prothrombinase complex assembly is the penultimate step in thrombin generation, factor Xa affects both the amount of active thrombin generated and the amount of fibrin (clot) formed. Factor Xa inhibitors have helped to rejuvenate the anticoagulation marketplace.
Familial Mutation A mutation that is associated with a specific disease or trait in a family, the inheritance of which substantially increases the risk of specific disease or trait development.
FAST Rating System The Btech Investor system to rate the quality of drug targets as Fundamental, Ancillary, Superficial, or Trivial.
Fast Track Status A designation given by the FDA to drugs for which the FDA wishes to expedite the review process. Typically, this designation is given to treatments for serious or life-threatening conditions and that have the demonstrated potential to address an unmet medical need.
Fastmelt Proprietary, convenience-based drug delivery formulation designed to release a drug rapidly within the mouth where it dissolves into a drug solution and is then swallowed.
Febrile Feverish; having a fever.
Female Sexual Arousal Disorder Persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or maintain until sexual activity completion, an adequate lubrication-swelling response associated with sexual desire and excitement. Response includes vaginal lubrication and expansion as well as swelling of the clitoris and other external genitalia. This scenario must be accompanied by distress and/or interpersonal difficulty.
Fen-Phen Any of several combination drug regimens featuring the compounds fenfluramine and phentermine, or derivatives thereof. The most popular branded versions were Redux (dexfenfluramine) and Pondimin (fenfluramine) from Wyeth. Fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1997 after their off-label use in obesity management was associated with the development of heart valve abnormalities. Herbal fen-phen is typically a combination of extracts of Saint-John’s wort and ephedra derivatives such as ma huang.
Fentanyl A synthetic opiate with agonist activity at kappa and mu receptors, it is a mainstay in the treatment of chronic and/or intractable pain in those people who have experienced opiates and have stable pain, and are typically unable to take oral agents or are intolerant of other available opiates.
Ferritin A blood protein whose measurement can help determine the amount of iron stored in the body. Its concentration is most often measured in the serum, the component of blood most like water (as compared to [1] ""plasma"" which also contains red and white cells and platelets and [2] ""whole blood"" which, on top of plasma, also contains clotting and anti clotting factors and other proteins and substances).
Fetoplacental Barrier The physically elusive border of the circulations of a pregnant mother and the fetus she carries, who lies within a temporary organ joining them called the placenta. Drugs that remain on the maternal side of this barrier are usually safe for the fetus.
Fibrinolysis The breakdown of fibrin, the protein generated by thrombin's enzymatic conversion of fibrinogen.
Fibrinolytic Relating to the breakdown of fibrin, enzymatic in nature and by drugs in acute clotting syndromes such as myocardial infarction, stroke, or pulmonary embolism.
Florescent Protein A laboratory construction of a protein coupled to a florescent dye, used to track the location of the protein in cells.
FLT-3 A ligand-receptor system that plays a role in hematopoietic stem cell development.
Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) A molecular technique used to study chromosomes. Under the microscope, fluorescent tags glow under ultraviolet light to reveal hybridization of molecular probes to specific regions of the DNA that make up chromosomes. This technique is being increasingly leveraged in the molecular diagnostic lab. The most classic example is 3 copies of chromosome 21 being readily detected in a cell of a fetus with Down Syndrome. Increasingly more common is the detection of multiple copies of the Her-2 gene in a breast cancer cell, thus signifying the potential utility of Herceptin therapy.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) The government agency responsible for approving and regulating food and drugs for commercial distribution in the United States.
Fragile X Syndrome The most common inherited cause of developmental delay / mental retardation, it affects approximately 1 in 2,000 males and 1 in 4,000 females worldwide. It is second only to Down syndrome as a cause of mental retardation. It is one of several neuropsychiatric conditions caused by an expanded set of repeated elements along the length of a chromosome (trinucleotide repeats). Trinucleotide repeat expansion in Fragile X is along a specific stretch of the X-chromosome.
Framingham Study (The Framingham Heart Study) A landmark, longitudinal, epidemiologic study begun in 1948. Approximately 12,000 Framingham, Massachusetts residents who had not yet developed overt symptoms of cardiovascular disease or suffered a heart attack or stroke were enrolled in the initial investigations designed to collect medical data. At that time, the cardiovascular disease death rates had been increasing steadily since the beginning of the 20th century and had reached epidemic proportion. However, little was known about the causes of cardiovascular disease. The study's objective was, and still is, to identify the common factors or characteristics that contribute to cardiovascular disease. The study is responsible for the identification of the major cardiovascular disease risk factors: high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, smoking, obesity, diabetes, and physical inactivity as well as the related factors such as blood triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels, age, gender, and psychosocial issues. More recently, a significant proportion of initial study subjects and their family members have also provided DNA samples. More than 1,000 published manuscripts have resulted from the study.
Free Cash Flow (FCF) A company’s cash flow available for payment to the providers of capital (stock and debt holders) and to be reinvested in the company.
Free Radicals A molecule or subset of a molecule that has at least one unpaired electron. Because they have a free electron, free radicals are typically short-lived, highly reactive molecular fragments. These fragments are often formed by the splitting of a molecular bond, and they are capable of initiating or mediating a wide variety of chemical reactions. They have been associated with many events mediated by oxidation such as adverse inflammation and aging.
Friedriech Ataxia The most common inherited type of ataxia, it is a degenerative CNS condition that affects balance, coordination, movement, and sensation.
Fully Human Antibody A monoclonal antibody derived from human genes. These antibodies avoid the immune reaction against antibodies derived from mouse genes.
Functional Genomics Applying genomic information to determine gene function, commonly using microarrays and model organisms. An important part of target validation.
Functional Proteomics Applying proteomic information to determine protein function
Fusion Protein A protein created in the laboratory by splicing together two or more gene segments. Fusion proteins often combine the functions of two proteins into one.
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