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Term Definition
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura (ITP) An autoimmune disorder in which an individual forms antibodies that destroy their own platelets. Its cause is unknown. Tiny red dots on the skin, called petechiae are often the initial bleeding manifestation. Progression to persistent nosebleeds and even gastrointestinal bleeding may occur. ""Idiopathic"" means that its cause is unknown (sometimes “immune” is substituted as this system plays an obvious role in its pathogenesis). ""Thrombocytopenic"" means that there are not enough circulating platelets. ""Purpura"" means excessive bruising.
IL-1 A cytokine (small signaling molecule) produced by blood cells that signals other cells to perform cellular functions. IL-1 can be cleaved into a peptide involved in cell death (apoptosis). IL stands for interleukin.
IL-12 A cytokine produced by immune cells which has various effects on many cell types.
IL-1b The beta chain of the IL-1 cytokine. IL-1b and IL-1a combine to form a cytokine produced by immune cells.
IL-2 A cytokine (small signaling molecule) produced by helper T cells that signals other cells to divide or perform other cellular functions. IL stands for interleukin.
IL-2R The cell surface protein that binds and is activated by IL-2.
IL-4 A cytokine (small signaling molecule) produced by white blood cells that signals other cells to divide or perform other cellular functions. IL-4 promotes allergic responses via production of IgE. IL stands for interleukin.
IL-6 A cytokine produced by immune cells which has various effects on many cell types, including inducing differentiation and activation.
IL-8 A cytokine (small signaling molecule) produced by white blood cells that signals other cells to divide or perform other cellular functions. IL stands for interleukin.
Imaging The action or process of producing an image especially by means other than visible light. In diagnostic medicine, common methods for imaging include x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emmission tomography (PET), ultrasound, and various angiographic modalities. "
Immortal Cell A cell that can divide in culture indefinitely. Most mammalian cells die after a limited time out of the body.
Immune Mediated Thrombocytopenia Low platelet count in the peripheral circulation due to destruction of platelets and/or their precursors (such as megakaryocytes) by the immune system.
Immune System The network of white blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and related organs that distinguish between ""self"" and “not self,"" protecting the body from invasion from pathogens or foreign bodies. The immune system also defends against some cancer cells.
Immunogenicity The degree to which an antigen is recognized by the immune system. Because immunogenicity varies, it is easier to make monoclonal antibodies against some antigens than others. Immunogenicity also influences the effectiveness of vaccines and other therapies.
Immunoglobulin (Ig) Antibody.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Class of antibodies typically involved in allergies and asthma, among other processes.
In Vitro In the test tube. Often refers to biological experiments in the lab which later need to be verified in vivo.
In Vivo In the body. Often refers to experiments or treatments given directly to live subjects.
Incidence A term used in epidemiology indicating the number of new cases that occur in a given group of people (population) each year (or other specified period of time). Most often expressed as number of new cases per 100,000 populations per year. "
Incubator A laboratory device used to keep cells and tissues at a specific temperature and humidity condusive to growth.
INDAS (Élan) Acronym for Insoluble Drug Absorption System, it is proprietary technology designed to improve the solubility and absorption characteristics of poorly water soluble drugs.
Indirect Costs of Disease Management Costs attributable to work time lost and travel expenses incurred by patients and/or their friends and family in obtaining patient care.
Indium (In) The metallic element of atomic number 49 and atomic weight 114.82.
Individualized Medicine The goal of an individual care plan based upon knowledge of their genetic profile primarily derived from gene expression analyses and genotyping, and including both disease susceptibility analyses and response-to-treatment/medication profiling. "
Infarction The development of an infarct, a region of tissue death due to a local lack of oxygen.
Infection The growth and development of an organism that lives on or in another organism and draws its nourishment from its "host." When a human is infected by another organism, the organism derives its nourishment from the person. The presence of an organism on or in another is not sufficient for the determination of infection. For example, the normal growth and development of mouth, throat, intestinal, or vaginal organisms is not considered an infection, and even unusual organisms can coexist in or on humans "colonizing" them without infecting them. True infections are most often accompanied by signs of inflammation in people with intact immune systems.
Inflammation One of several fundamental pathologic processes, it is characterized by complex cellular and subcellular reactions occurring in affected blood vessels and affected tissues in response to abnormal stimulation including injury and trauma. Such stimulation can be from physical, chemical, or biologic agents and causes local reactions and structural changes, destruction or removal of the harmful agent, and responses that repair and heal. The so-called “cardinal signs” of inflammation are: rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), and dolor (pain).
Inflammatory Bowel Disease A group of chronic illnesses characterized by inflammation of the bowel (the small or large intestine). They can be limited to the intestine or associated with disease of the eyes, liver, gallbladder, skin, joints, and other organs. Crohn disease and Ulcerative colitis are the most common of these disorders.
Inflammatory Cascade The series of biochemical events that occurs when severe inflammation is left, whether intentionally or not, untreated. Many of these events are mediated by cytokines and clotting factors in the blood"
Inflammatory Disease Disease in which inflammation underlies the pathology.
Inositol Hexaphosphate (IHP) Also known as Phytate, Phytic Acid, or IP-6, it is a naturally occurring component of plant fiber for which evidence suggests its being a potent antioxidant. It is present in a wide variety of plant foods, especially wheat bran, whole grains, and legumes.
Inotrope Colloquial term for a substance or apparatus that increases the force of, especially cardiac, muscular contractions. Technically, these are "positive inotropes," whereas a substance or apparatus that decreases the force of muscular contractions is a "negative inotrope."
Insomnia Inability to sleep
Insulin A hormone made by the pancreas or taken by injection that regulates the amount of sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream.
Integrin A family of transmembrane proteins that serve as receptors for various components of the extracellular matrix.
Intensive Care Unit A hospital unit physically and identifiably separate from general routine patient care areas. These areas have a high density of special physiologic monitoring equipment and skilled personnel for the care of critically ill patients requiring immediate and concentrated continuous care, observation, and attention. There are several types of intensive care units, also known as ICUs. Coronary Care Units (CCUs) are ICUs staffed with nursing and supportive personnel specially trained in the care of patients with known and suspected coronary artery events. Medical ICUs (MICUs) are ICUs staffed with nursing and supportive personnel specially trained in the care of patients with general internal medical disease that requires intensive, supportive care. Surgical ICUs, respiratory ICUs, pediatric ICUs, neonatal ICUs, high-risk obstetrics units, and burn units are likewise staffed for the care of patients relevant to their disciplines.
Intensivist A physician specializing in the care of patients admitted to the ICU including neonatologists and high-risk obstetricians.
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) One of a family of molecules, the cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), that exist on the surface of virtually every cell in the body. It not only mediates the interaction between specific cell types but also transmits signals into the cells when activated. "
Interferons A family of cytokines (small hormone like proteins) secreted by white blood cells that influence growth and other functions of target cells.
Interleukins see Cytokines.
Intervention The act or process of intervening (coming in-between). In medical practice, interventions are the administration of a drug, the performance of a surgical procedure, counseling, or other modalities designed to relieve suffering. Drugs, surgeries (and the devices with which they are performed), and counseling themselves are said to be interventions.
Intracellular Protein A protein found inside the cell, either in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. Drugs targeting intracellular proteins must pass through the cell membrane.
Intracranial neoplasm A tumor within the confines of the skull.
Intractable Refractory; resistant to treatment
Intraocular Pressure Pressure created by the continual renewal of fluids within the eye. It is increased in glaucoma. In acute angle-closure glaucoma, it rises because the canal into which the fluid in the front part of the eye normally drains is suddenly blocked, whereas in chronic glaucoma, a gradual imbalance between production and removal (resorption) of the fluid in the back part of the eye (with supply exceeding demand) occurs.
Intravenous Within a vein or veins
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) Complex mixtures of antibodies purified from healthy people and given as therapeutics to patients for a variety of conditions.
Invasive With regard to tumors, suggests movement into the bloodsteam, lymphatic system, or impingement upon crucial structures in the body.
Investigational New Drug Application (IND) Application to the Food and Drug Administration for permission to begin human clinical trials.
Ion Channel A protein found in the membrane of many cell types, particularly neurons in the brain, that allow sodium, potassium, and other ions to flow into and out of cells in a regulated manner. Ion channels are important for many cellular processes, including signaling in the brain and the immune system.
IPDAS (Élan) Acronym for Intestinal Protective Drug Absorption System, it is Élan’s proprietary multiparticulate tablet technology designed to enhance the gastrointestinal tolerability of potentially irritant or ulcer-causing drugs.
Ischemia Localized tissue anemia and oxygen debt due to obstruction of the inflow of arterial blood.
Isoenzyme Any of two or more functionally similar yet chemically distinct enzymes.
Isolex Cell Selection System (Nexell) A magnetic bead separator which is used to isolate and purify stem cells in the clinic.
Isotope Variants of elements by virtue of different mass numbers, typically due to a different number of neutrons in their nuclei.
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