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Search Results For: N

Term Definition
Naked DNA The simplest form of gene therapy in which the gene and control regions are injected without a vector into the patient.
NanoCrystal Technology (Élan) A proprietary drug delivery technology that helps deliver poorly water soluble drugs by delivering the drug as very small crystals stabilized by polymers.
Naratriptan The generic name of Glaxo Wellcome’s Amerge, a 5-HT 1B/1D agonist indicated for the treatment of acute migraine.
Natriuresis An increased excretion rate of sodium.
Natriuretic Peptide One of a group of protein-like substances whose principal physiologic role is to increase the rate of sodium excretion via urination.
Necrosis A type of pathological cell death.
Negative Predictive Value Considering people being tested for a given condition by a particular test, it is the proportion of persons who test negative that truly do not have the disorder of concern.
Neoplasia 1. The formation of tumors. 2. A condition characterized by tumors.
Neotrofin (NeoTherapeutics) An investigational agent with properties that play a role in amyloid plaque interruption, and that shows ample evidence of actual regeneration of nerve cells in vitro. Neotrofin is being investigated for treatment of Alzheimer disease.
Nerve Growth Factor A polypeptide growth factor member of the neurotrophin family which also includes Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin-3 (NT3). It controls the survival and development of certain populations of neurons and has been reported to stimulate growth of other cell types.
Neural Nerve; pertaining to nerve cells; of the brain.
Neuraminidase An enzyme from influenza that helps the virus leave cells in order to infect other cells.
Neurodegeneration Progressive, central nervous system (CNS) cell death.
Neurodegenerative Disorders Disorders characterized by the death of neurons and/or related cells. Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Friedreich Ataxia, Multiple Sclerosis, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are the prototypical neurodegenerative disorders.
Neuroimmunophilin Ligand Investigational agents known to have the ability to, essentially, grow neurons in vitro, being investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Neurological Disorders Disorders of the nervous system including neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, seizure disorders, peripheral neuropathy, traumatic injury to the brain and spinal cord, and many others.
Neurology The study of the nervous system and its disorders.
Neuromuscular Disorders Disorders of the nervous and musculoskelatal system.
Neuron Nerve cell; cells transmitting electrical signals that make up the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
Neurotransmitter A chemical that carries a chemical signal between neurons and muscles and from neuron to neuron. Neurotransmitters are released across the synapse - the gap between two neurons or a neuron and a muscle. Different types of neurons release different neurotransmitters.
Neurotrophins Structurally related molecules that support the survival of different classes of embryonic neurons. They include nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), GDGF, and ciliary neurotrophic factor.
Neutropenia Below normal circulating concentrations of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell filled with microscopic granules containing enzymes that digest microorganisms. Neutrophils are a typeof granulocyte. Granulocytes are part of the immune system that has general, non-specific activity; unlike B and T lymphocytes, granulocytes do not just respond exclusively to specific antigens.
Neutrophil A type of white blood cell. They contain microscopic granules (and are, thus, classified as granulocytes), little sacs containing enzymes that digest microorganisms such as bacteria.
New Drug Application (NDA) Application to the Food and Drug Administration to begin marketing a drug to the public.
NFkB A transcription factor that activates genes involved in immune responses as well as other classes of genes.
NFkB Antisense Oligonucleotide A small piece of DNA complementary to the NFkB gene which has the potential to neutralize production of the NFkB protein. NFkB is a transcription factor, meaning it is a protein that turns on and off a specific programs of genes.
Niacin Nicotinic acid or nicotinamide, forms of Vitamin B3 used by the body to form the vital coenzymes called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phospate (NADP). Niacin plays a preventive role in the prophylaxis of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, skin breakdown, and dementia. Niacin can play a therapeutic role in dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease.
Nifedipine Extended Release Tablets Formulations of calcium channel blocking agent, used for treatment of hypertension, that have a longer duration of effect. Examples are Pfizer’s Procardia XL, Bayer’s Adalat CC, and Mylan’s generic. "
Nitric Oxide (NO) A colorless gas formed by oxidation of nitrogen or ammonia, it is a substance that tends to relax blood vessels in the body. NO is also a fundamental mediator of inflammation. Excess NO production has been implicated in multiple pathological processes including sepsis and other processes characterized by hyperactive inflammatory processes. "
Nitroglycerine Of chemical formula C3H5NO3(3), it is formed by the action of sulfuric and nitric acids upon glycerine and is (1) A powerful vessel opening (vasodilating) agent used in the treatment of heart muscle injury, ischemia, and infarction. Many generic formulations by various manufacturers are marketed. (2) A potent component of dynamite.
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) One of two main categories of lymphoma involving cancerous growth of B or T cells. About 85% of NHL are of B cell origin compared to about 15% of T cell origin.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory (NSAID) Drugs A class of anti-inflammatory analgesics (pain medications) that do not entail a steroid component.
Notch One of a family of cell surface proteins involved in cell fate decisions in the immune system and other organs.
Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA.
Nucleotides One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base (one of four chemicals: adenine, thymidine, guanine, and cytosine) plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphoric acid.
Nucleus An organelle (compartment) found within most cells that contains most of the genetic material (DNA). Bacteria and red blood cells are examples of cells that do not contain nuclei. In mammalian cells, the small proportion of non-nuclear DNA is found in the mitochondria.
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