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Term Definition
Obesity Abnormal body mass index, usually defined as more than 20 percent above average weight for age, height and bone structure.
Off-label Use The use of a drug in a way neither approved by the FDA nor permitted to be put on its label and advertised as its intended purpose. Once approved, physicians are free to prescribe a drug for any indication they see fit.
Oligonucleotides Short sequences of DNA, usually 8 to 30 nucleotides long, synthesized in the laboratory for research or therapeutic purposes.
Oligos Lab slang for oligonucleotides.
Oligosaccharide A chain of sugars attached through O- or N-linked chemical bonds. Oligosacchariades are often attached to cell surface proteins or lipids. Specific oligosaccharide structure can vary between cells, and may be a marker for tumor cells. "
Omega-Conotoxin (OCT) Conotoxins are small peptide neurotoxins found in the venoms of Conus snails. Those of the omega family typically have 25-28 amino acid residues and fold into three-dimensional structures stabilized by three disulfides. They act by binding to and inhibiting presynaptic calcium channels, thereby preventing neurotransmitter release. This feature has been harnessed to provide clinical analgesia (pain relief).
Oncogene A gene that, when mutated, has the potential to contribute to the transformation of a normal cell into a tumor cell. When unaltered, these genes play a normal role in cell growth. Oncogenes are potential targets for drugs and diagnostic tests.
Oncology The study of cancer.
Oncoprotein A protein encoded by an oncogene.
Opiate Containing or derived from opium, such as morphine. Opiates are naturally occurring basic (alkaline) molecules with a complex fused ring structure used for pain management. "
Oral Mucositis Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity.
Organ Rejection One of several sorts of immunologic response to incompatibility in a transplanted organ.
Orphan Disease An FDA category of disease defined as one that affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than six thousand different rare disorders.
Orphan Drug A drug targeted to treat an Orphan Disease, which is a condition affecting a population less than 200,000. The Orphan Drug Act offers tax credits, protocol assistance, research grants and a seven-year monopoly on drug sales as incentives to pharmaceutical companies to develop and manufacture Orphan Drug.
Orthopedic Surgery The branch of surgery concerned with the skeletal system.
Osteolytic Relating to bone breakdown.
Osteopetrosis A condition characterized by abnormally thick, dense bones due to an inherited defect in bone resorption, the process by which old bone is broken down and removed to make room for new bone to be added to the skeleton. Although bones are unusually dense, they are also quite fragile and easily broken. Bone marrow disease can also be a prominent feature of the disease, leading to anemia and/or neutropenia and/or thrombocytopenia. Blindness, deafness, and strokes may occur when the skeleton is so dense that it interferes with the normal course of blood vessels or nerves.
Osteoporosis Loss of calcium and other substances from bones, causing bones to become weak and prone to fractures.
Outcome Consequence or result, the most important in late-stage clinical trials and medical practice being those that involve or depend upon direct observation of living patients or study subjects. Outcomes not meeting these criteria are said to be surrogate or secondary outcomes.
Outpatient A patient treated without being admitted for a stay in the hospital.
Overall Response Complete response plus partial response. Some studies will additionally include “minor responses,” variably defined but always less than a partial response.
Oxidative Stress A condition caused by the presence of too many free radicals in a cell. In response, cells naturally manufacture antioxidants that convert free radicals into harmless oxygen, water, and other chemicals.
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