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Datamonitor Healthcare CV&Met Disease Analysis: Type 2 Diabetes

March 13, 2020

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders which are characterized by hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose levels) due to insufficient insulin secretion, which in type 2 diabetes occurs in the setting of insulin insensitivity.

The two main types of diabetes mellitus are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, with type 2 being by far the most common, estimated at 87–91% of all diabetes cases in high-income countries. However, the traditional paradigms of type 2 diabetes occurring only in adults and type 1 diabetes only in children are no longer accurate, as both diseases occur in both age groups. Other forms of diabetes include gestational diabetes, monogenic diabetes syndromes (eg neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young [MODY]), latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA; also referred to as type 1.5), diseases of the exocrine pancreas (eg cystic fibrosis and pancreatitis), and drug- or chemical-induced diabetes (eg due to glucocorticoid use, in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, or after organ transplantation).

While type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas, usually associated with autoantibodies, the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is less clear. Even before they develop type 2 diabetes, patients typically have both insulin resistance, due to obesity and physical inactivity, and signs of beta cell dysfunction. As insulin resistance worsens, the prediabetic pancreas increases total insulin production to compensate, but diabetes develops when it is no longer able to do so and insulin secretion falters. It is unclear to what extent the enhanced beta cell activity itself may contribute to the dysfunction and eventual destruction of beta cells. It is also unclear to what extent genetic versus environmental factors play a role in type 2 diabetes.

This Datamonitor Healthcare report contains a Disease Analysis module.
Indications Covered: Diabetes Mellitus, Type II
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